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Resources for Feeding, Eating, Drinking, Speech, and Mouth/Airway Function

ONE MONTH TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT CHECKLIST (©Diane Bahr) Place a check mark next to the characteristics you see in your one-month-old baby

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Typical 1-Month-Old Baby

YES   NO  
Begins gaining control over rooting reflex (rooting leads to sucking)        
Locates nipple with mouth easily        
Sequences 2 or more sucks from the bottle or breast        
Mouths hands & fingers near front of mouth (generalized mouthing)        
Mouth, nose, & throat growing & changing (different from newborn)        
Has closed mouth & easy nose-breathing when mouth is inactive & empty        
Rests tongue in roof of the mouth to help maintain broad palate shape        
Is free of tethered tongue, lip, and/or cheek ties        
Can mirror/imitate some mouth movement        
Can match some pitch & duration of human voice        


When Held Upright
Lifts & holds head up in line with body for a few seconds (birth to 1 month)        
Holds head up steadily in line with body for a few minutes (1 to 2 months)        

When on the Stomach
Rests head to one side or the other & can bring hand to mouth on that side        
Moves arms & legs away from body & lowers hips toward a surface when resting        
Lifts & turns head with increasing skill (shifts weight to arms; shoulders likely sending information through spine for hips to lift from surface)        
Can lift head for a few moments without chin touching a surface (birth to 1 month)        
Can lift head for approximately 5 seconds (1 to 2 months)        
Moves legs in thrusting or crawling motion (birth to 1 month)        

When on Each Side
Turns from side to back from each side (1 to 2 months)        

When on the Back
Has increased skill in head turning & chin lifting; may turn head from side-to-side        
May assume fencing posture with head turning (arm reaching outward on face side, elbow bent on skull side – asymmetric tonic neck reflex/response)        
May turn head to look at something & move hands in a rudimentary way (possible eye-hand connection)        
Has better peripheral than midline vision, so can track object from side to middle of body        
Has increased chest, shoulder, arm, & hand opening likely secondary to gravitational pull        
Closes hand around adult’s finger or object (grasp response)        
Moves arms vigorously (1 to 2 months)        
Kick legs in the air reciprocally, as well as symmetrically        
Bends body, arms, & legs at the same time (tonic labyrinthine reflex, birth to 1 month)        
Straightens body; tries to straighten arms & legs (tonic labyrinthine reflex, birth to 1 month)        

Primary References

•Bahr, D. (2018). Feed your baby and toddler right: Early eating and drinking skills encourage the best development. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons.
•Bahr, D. C., & Hillis, A. E. (2001). Neurological and anatomical bases. In D. C. Bahr Oral motor assessment and treatment: Ages and stages (pp. 1-41). USA: Pearson College Division.
•Bly, L. (1994). Motor skills acquisition in the first year: An illustrated guide to normal development. USA: Psychological Corp.
•Feldenkrais, M. (1972). Awareness through movement (Vol. 1977). New York: Harper and Row.
•Morris, S. E., & Klein, M. D. (2000). Pre-Feeding skills: A comprehensive resource for mealtime development. (2nd ed.) . San Antonio, TX: Therapy Skill Builders.
•Neuro Restart (2019). Primitive reflexes. Retrieved from
•Vulpe, S. G. (1994). Vulpe assessment battery-revised: Developmental assessment, performance analysis, individualized programming for the atypical child. East Aurora, NY: Slosson Educational Publications.